Relation of ethical and aesthetic principles in sports games
Now we have the situation when people‘s ardour for sports steady increases in the form of a performance. Pierre de Coubertin entrusted in his ―Ode to sport‖: O Sport, you are Justice! The perfect equity for which men strive in vain in their social institutions is your constant companion. No one can jump a centimetre higher than the height he can jump, nor run a minute longer than the length he can run. The limits of his success are determined solely by his own physical and moral strength. The laurels you bestow have no value unless they have been won in absolute fairness and with perfect impartiality.‖. At present we understood that the spirit of olympism and the principle of fair play were actually lost. The moral potential of sports competition has decreased. A contemporary spectator is interested in sport that resembles a show or performance, but not a competition with –Faster, higher, stronger‖. So, the problem lies in the fact that the aesthetic comes to the fore ejecting the ethical and develops into the cold performance.
Ethos и aesthesis are really important definitions for the analysis of the phenomenon of sport in contemporary society. There are various theories about relation of these two principles. Some theories based on the fact that the aesthetic and the ethical exist not differentiating between themselves, i.e. one without another doesn‘t exist. For example, Kant wrote about the taste: –Only moral person can estimate aesthetic things‖. The beauty is always connected with morality if it‘s connected with a man. Other researchers (generally postmodernists) supposed that the aesthetic manages without the ethical.
Sport as the socially significant phenomenon is also involved in this question about relation of the aesthetic and the ethical. More than 100 years ball games attract spectators more than other sports. It‘s very difficult to find the country where any ball game is not dominating sports. Game is the one of the most interesting performance now. Therefore the aim of the paper is to elicit the modern situation of relation of the aesthetic and the ethical in sports games (on an example of football and volleyball). Football is a contact game where the ball is controlled only by feet (besides goalkeeper); volleyball is noncontact game where the mandatory requirement is to control the ball by hands.
When doing our research we have used the following methods: theoretical analysis; our questionnairing and patterned interviewing. It‘s pilot research among students of specializations football and volleyball for the purpose to assess a level of their notions about the basic categories of ethics and aesthetics. The sample size is 30 students (in 15 persons from each sports).
The table shows ranking of athletes answers. After analysis of the received qualitative results we can come to following conclusions. These groups of football and volleyball players don‘t know and don‘t understand what aesthetics is. The group of volleyball players proved to be more ethical, than football players. Possibly, this situation can be explained: volleyball as the game sports assumes the high level of interest in it, but in contrast to the football, it is not tied on "personal" oppositions therefore fair play is not the big problem in volleyball. In this sport there are some valuable and important signs: collective game, understanding by players each other.
There is some collective or united mind in volleyball team. It‘s very rare situation in the game when two players of one team go to the ball. Every player is fastened to his position territory. Protection of the given territory is a priority task. In football there are a lot of moments when the players of one team collide between themselves in the game because individual game comes to the fore. Maybe problems in the sports games proceed, first of all, from players. Their faults are that players don‘t understand how to define the beautiful and why their sport is aesthetic. Therefore it‘s very difficult for supporters to know the sense of games if even players have difficulties in definition of priorities of game. Here we found the fact of lack of the competence at students on questions of ethics and aesthetics, which is connected with the absence these disciplines at Lesgaft National State University of physical education, sports and health.
From the point of view of public values and strategies of development shortage of the ethical in the aesthetic in sports is the big problem. Ethical allows person to find his place in this world, in this culture. It is responsible for harmony of emotions and will. The aesthetic is clearer. The ethical in any form of "art" changes into the aesthetic. It is easier to see the ethical in the aesthetic. The modern spectator is already used to perceive (to see) the aesthetic which loses original sense because it lost the ethical, which is received by feelings, sensations. Violation of rules leads to –disgrace‖, i.e. to infringement of the integrity of aesthetic image. But it is not –unattractivity‖, it is incorrectness. Aesthetic of sport hasn‘t something that we can call not-beautiful.
The naked form without fullness inner meaning is modern sport. And football stays in the first rows. Effectiveness turns against aesthetic pleasure and for spectator any action of athlete is measured only by success.
1. Кант И. Критика способности суждения. М., 2001.
2. Новоскольцев В.А. Пылающая эстафета: (О П. де Кубертэне). М., 1979.
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