Interaction of state-framed and counter-state nationalisms: the case of Canada
This report is dedicated to the analysis of interaction of two nationalisms in Canada. The foundation for this research is R. Brubaker's concept of state-framed and counter-state nationalism, which was proposed as an alternative to the dichotomy between ethnic and civic nationalism. State-framed nationalism calls for creation and defense of a nation, framed by the state. Unlike «civic» nationalism, it is not necessarily liberal or based solely on the people's appreciation of state institutions. As for counter-state nationalism, it calls for the establishment of a nation, distinct from the existing state; it is not specifically ethnic, as it can be based on distinct political institutions. In the case of Canada, English Canadian Nationalism can be considered state-framed nationalism and French-Canadian nationalism is referred to as counter-state nationalism.
In 1867 Canada became independent from Great Britain, but nationalism of English Canadians was relying upon Great Britain as a source of ideas and models of governance; it implied full assimilation of minorities and belief in superiority of British and «Nordic» values: individualism, protestant ethic, discipline etc. The main institutions of English-Canadian nation-building were English language, school education and the Protestant church.
In the 19th century French Canadians were a minority as English Canadians dominated in most spheres of public life: they were economic elites even in Montreal. The initial stage of French-Canadian nationalism was influenced by ideas of isolationism, conservatism and agricultural work. The main institutions of this nationalism were the French language and the Catholic Church.
In the 20th century English-Canadian nationalism started to transform as the pressure from the USA increased and with immigration from non-European states. The Pan-Canadian nationalism was also altered by uprising Quebec nationalism, secularization and weakening of the British Empire.
The anti-USA response was named «New Nationalism»; it was mostly characterized by dissatisfaction with US economic domination, but there were stances against NATO and US influence on education, film industry, book publishing and broadcasting. The outcomes of this movement include creation of Canadian national institutions (i.e. Canadian Broadcasting corporation), strengthening of Pan-Canadian nationalism, increased interest in Canadian history, art and science, attempts to differentiate Canadian foreign policy from the US (i.e. abstention from the Iraq War, promotion of human security).
The Quiet Revolution in Quebec which gave rise to social-democratic nationalism. The nationalistic initiative shifted to the Quebec government, it became main actor of French-Canadian identity development. The Quiet Revo¬lution led to the rise of self-awareness of French-Canadians and their strong link to Quebec; it also provided basis for radicalization of some groups (i.e. Front of liberation of Quebec). The results of Quebec social-democratic nationalism were gaining of control over economic structures (i.e. hydroelectric companies); modernization of gov¬ernment sector; equality in education and healthcare; development of separatist movements.
The Quiet Revolution made the government of P. Trudeaux introduce a new approach to the Canadian nation: in 1968 the official policy of bilingualism was launched; in 1971 the official policy of multiculturalism was implemented. The given reforms were approved by immigrants, but criticized by Quebec.
The conflict between the 2 nationalisms can be explained by the existence of 2 competing national projects. Most English-speaking Canadians view their nation as a single multicultural, bilingual and liberal community, a federation of 10 equal provinces. According to Quebecers, Canada is a result of pact between two founding peoples - the French and the British. So, the federal policy of multiculturalism was perceived by Quebecers as a negation of biculturalism, as this policy equated the French-Canadian people with other ethnic minorities.
Since 1990-s Quebec nationalism has been characterized as «market nationalism», for its main purpose has been gaining control over economic resources.
In 2006 the Conservative party came to power in Canada and declared a return to «Open Federalism». In 2007 the House of Commons officially recognized Quebec as a nation. Lack of repercussions and an insignificant public reaction demonstrate the decline of Quiet Revolution nationalism and an indication of a new economic orientation of the Quebec elites.
To conclude, the history of Canadian nationalism shows that its liberal nature is a result of internal and external pressures. The main external factors are perhaps pressure from the US and democratic tendencies in the Second World War. Internal factors include Quebec nationalism and demographic changes in Canada. The answer to these challenges was the official policy of multiculturalism, bilingualism and tolerance to ethnic diversity. Modern Quebec nationalism has largely lost its conservatism and emphasis on the past; it now deals with self-realization and devel-opment of the province.
А. А. Смирнова
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